Straw Processing
Technology and equipment for manufacturing semifinished fibers (SFF) from straw
Straw Feed Processing for Cattle  
Straw Fermentation
Straw Fertilizer
Straw Feed
   Straw     Processing equipment for manufacturing semifinished fibers (SFF)  is based on a modular design according to the following  performance parameters (based on fiber  moisture content up to 20%): 1 ton / hour ÷ 5 t / h, and installed in the room with temperature from +5 ° C, with water and  electric energy supplies. Room heating is the infrared heaters with automatic temperature on-off, process water must be free of iron, manganese; its hardness meeting the requirements for drinking water (Fe ? 0.3 mg / l, Mn ? 0.1 mg / l, hardness ? 2.5 mg / l as these substances impair the white fibers for  semi-finished   fiber products manufactured from straw; circulating water supply. Power supply: 3-phase AC voltage - 380V.  The equipment installed power for semi-finished fiber products from wood and straw is about the same and is equivalent to a number of capacities: 15 kWh / ton ÷ 30 kWh / t 5 ÷ 90 kWh / t.

       Производство Волокнистого полуфабриката из древесины и соломы (ВПФ) является безотходным и экологически безопасным и осуществляется в две стадии:
- получение щепы (обрезей соломы)
переработка соломы в (волокнистый полуфабрикат из древесины и соломы) ВПФ.

The manufacture of wood pulps and semi-finished fiber products from straw and   is waste-free and environmentally safe and is carried out in two stages:
-  wood chipping (straw cropping)
processing of straw to wood pulp and straw semi-finished fiber.

 In the production of wood chips from unbarked timber the waste are solids (soil, metal particles), bark, twigs resulted from soaking the wood chips. In the case of processing debarked wood the waste are knotty elements only. 
 
In the production of straw semifinished fiber, waste are solids of ground origin, metal particles, leaves, which are removed during grinding and subsequent soaking.

Semifinished fibers (SFF) are processed products from natural (native) raw materials also known  as fiber-containing non-wood raw materials. These kinds of material are: cotton and linen - long-fibered, while  crop residues (gramineous plant straw ) – short-fibered raw materials.

Gramineous plant straw is large-scale natural raw material, its volumes are shown in Table. 1.
The chemical composition of the straw is shown in Table. 2, it is similar wood, and can completely replace it in the manufacture of wood pulps, bio-fuel, organic fertilizer, carbon black, carbon disulfide, xanthates (rayon, cellophane).
       

Table 1. - The volumes of agricultural waste produced in Russia
 
Crop
Grain Yield, mln. tons [133]
Straw Weignt, mln. tons
Seed-Straw Ratio [134, 135]
Wheat
46.9
84.4
1 / 1.8
Rye
6.6
13.2
1 / 2.0
Oat
7.7
11.5
1 / 1.5
Barley
19.5
29.2
1 / 1.5
 



Table 2 - Chemical Composition of Non-wood Plants Raw Material (wt% of the weight of raw)
 
 
Raw Material
Cellulose
Lignin
Pentosans
Substances Extracted with
ash
dichloroethane
water
1% NaOH
Wheat straw
34.8–49.2
24.5
19–30
1.5–3.7
4.6–5.5
Rye straw
40.4–49.3
22.9
27.7–28.8
2.0–2.6
3.1–4.1
Rice straw
42.9
17.9
27.1
6.2
17.4
54.7
15.3
 
      Straw processing
      Such a variety of straw processed product types is possible by processing straw to make a semi-finished fiber product as an intermediate step.
Straw processing to make semi-finished fiber (SFF) by the technology proposed here, is "wet" method allowing to use straw of any moisture supplied.
During wet grinding of straw - during soaking -   there takes place simultenious separation (washing, gravitational settling) of straw chippings   from impurities: soil, traces of rainfall.
       Immediately, when straw chippings are dispersed water-soluble substances, such as pentosans, galactans, mannans, arabinans, polysaccharose xylans, s tarch, protein, calcium, and magnesium are   extracted in the aqueous solution. When dispersing the straw, the extraction level of polysaccharose in water is 50 ÷ 60% of the initial content.

When making straw semifinished fibers (SFF) by the "wet" method a by-product is aqueous polysaccharose extract which can be used for the bio-fuels production from straw (ethanol),  as a food (energy) additives in animal feed as a liquid fertilizer easily absorbed by soil.
Semifinished fiber product, in its turn, is a multi-purpose product, namely:

1. SFF - mechanical pulp, the basis for the production of cardboard, an additive to low-quality paper (kraft, ersatz).
2. SFF - for thermomechanical (TM), chemical-thermo-mechanical (CTM), sulphate and soda pulp.
3. SFF - as filler for the production of plastic products.
4. SFF - for the production of wood-based products such as: MDF, wood particle boards, furniture elements, for housing.
5. SFF - for the production of heat-insulating material (incombustible fungicide), such as cellulose wool cellulose.
6. SFF - with a binder added - for the production of packaging: boxes, packing case.
7. SFF - with a binder added - for the production of containers for any purpose: placing appliances, refrigeration equipment, utensils, food storage, etc.
8. SFF - in briquette form - as a finished product for the production of the foregoing.
9. VFF - with a binder added -  as a building product: blocs, beams, boards, bricks.
10. SFF in combination with the attached microflora microorganisms – probiotics - as a bio-fertilizer.
11. SFF with microflora attached on the mineral component of zeolite type - as a biomineral fertilizer or food additive in animal or chicken feed.
12. SFF with biomineral addition and combined with nitrogen-containing group: urea or ammonium nitrate - as biomineral nitrogenous fertilizer.

Sizes for all fiber types, processing and application are about the same and correspond to the values ??in Table 3.
 
Table 3.
Item
Size
Grinding, о
Average fiber length, mm,
Whiteness,%
Grain particle size:
- Large (Mesh No. 9)
- Medium (Mesh No. 20)
- Fine (Meshа №No.40)
- Flour
Breaking length
9 – 13
1.5 – 2.4
≈ 50
 
61.2 – 72.4
10.6 – 16.8
1.2 – 1.8
12 – 16
460
 
Equipment for StrawProcessing

Straw Processing Flow Chart to make semifinished fiber (SFF) product is shown as the equipment (see Table. No. 4) and includes the following:

Straw milling with Tomasser bales stationary shredder into segments of 10 to 30 mm which are pressurized with kinetic energy of the cutting device into a surge tank with intensive mixing with a certain amount of water to form a slurry. From the surge tank the slurry is hydro-transported into the pool (silage) designed for broken rice straw for the moisture absorption of 30% and higher volume units ( 30 minutes).



Straw Dispersing. The pulp from the pool (silage) hydro-fed into the reactor and then into the straw dispergator and then it is prerssurized into the hydrodynamic separator where fibers of desired size are separated from large-sized fibrils and water. The dispergator is operated partially in the recycle mode (the amount of straw: reactor volume - 1:10).
The pulp of the fiber ground to the required size is fed onto  the  wire belt and to a hydraulic bale press or a centrifuge  (without a conveyor).
The final product of the "wet" straw processing technology to semi-finished fiber as a granular mass after centrifugation and briquetting by compression is shown in the photo.




  

Table 4
 
Name of Basic Equipment
 
Capacity (t / h)
Quantity, Units.
The Price, mln. RUR

 
10000 t/y,
2.2 t/h
30 000 t/y,
6.5 t/h
60000 t/y,
13 t/h
10000 t/y,
2.2 t/h
30 000 t/y,
6.5 t/h
60000 t/y,
13 t/h
10000 t/y,
2.2 t/h
30 000 t/y,
6.5 t/h
60000 t/y,
13 t/h
1
Complete Tomasser Straw Bales Chopper,  Denmark
2.2
4
9,9
1
2
3
2.92
3.1
5.6
2
Pool (silage) for soaking straw cuttings, the amount   5 m3, 10m3, 20mmaximum
100
200
300
1
1
1
0,8
1,2
1,6
3
Pulp hydro- feeder (straw + water) from the pool to the dispergator reactor
2.2
6.5
13
1
2
3
1.7
2.8
4.2
4
Surge tank combined with hydro-transportation unit
3,3
6,6
9,9
1
2
3
1,6
2,1
3,0
5
Straw dispergator (SFF) comprising: a reactor for the pulp, the capacity of up to 2 м3
4.0
6.0
12.0
1
2
2
0.75
 
1.5
3.2
6
Straw dispergator to make SFF
2,0
4,0
12,0
1
2
2
3.4
5.8
7.3
7
Hydrodynamicseparator,Volume0.1m3
2,0
4,0
12,0
1
2
2
0.4
1.2
2.3
 
Total:
-SFF equipment, the chopper excluded 
- SFF equipment, the chopper included 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8.65
11.57
 
14.6
17.7
 
21.6
27.2
 

 Optional equipment for straw processing: a centrifuge, hydraulic briquette press are available separately for technical specifications.
For the production of:
• bio-fertilizers and food additives - Complete "Biofactory" equipment and the production technology;
• Cellulose wool - Complete equipment for fire-resistant and fungicidal additives, the technology of a complete production cycle;
• cardboard – a cardboard making machine and related equipment;
• manufacturing of building products: blocks, beams, window frames, doors, wall boards, the bound forming equipment and production technology;
• for the production of furniture elements and wood-based products - a complete set of shaping equipment, bonded composition and production technologies.

Term of manufacturing equipment for straw processing is about 90 days. Prepayment -50%, 75% - shipping from stock, 25% - end of commissioning of  equipment for straw processing.